I’ve discovered an old user manual which was included in each box with “ORWO CHROM UT21”, a 100 ISO color reversal film made by the ORWO film factory in East Germany. I put it between the pages of a book on photography techniques when I was young and came across it years later.

I really like this table of weather and shooting conditions. But since it has been made specially for reversal films, negative films may become overexposed if you strictly follow its guidelines.

It reminds me of my own extended “Sunny 16 Rule” which I follow when I have no exposure meter with me. But still I prefer the matrix of shooting conditions to classic “Sunny 16 Rule”.

T, sec = 1/ISO Sunny Hazy Cloudy Overcast Heavy overcast
Snow, sand or sea f/22 f/16 f/11 f/8 f/5.6
Direct light f/16 f/11 f/8 f/5.6 f/4
Open shade f/11 f/8 f/5.6 f/4 f/2.8


// Sasha Krasnov